Power Electronics

Wiki Power-Electronics (simple explanations)




Waveform generator:  It generates exact voltage curves and provides them (e.g. for controllers).

  • A standard function generator provides the curves sine-rectangle-triangle-sawtooth.
  • With an arbitrary function generator, arbitrary (=arbitrary) curves can be generated and stored. It also has many other very different curves permanently stored in addition to the standard curves (manufacturer-dependent).


Power amplifier, analog, linearThese are longitudinally controlled amplifiers. They store the maximum power (output voltage/charge), which is then available within e.g. 1µsec.

If only a part of the stored voltage is called up, very high power losses can occur, which must be dissipated as heat.

Linear power amplifiers reproduce the signal given by the control signal with the corresponding power. They are very fast - up to MHz - have lowest distortions and exact zero crossings. They can be configured both as voltage amplifiers (where the output voltage follows the setpoint) and as current amplifiers (where the output current follows the setpoint).


Current Amplifier/Transconductance:  This is a power amplifier that provides constant/impressed current (the voltage changes as the load changes).


High Dynamic Switches:  They are used for fast switching (even with high powers).


Switch mode technology (switching regulator):  With this technology, as much energy as is needed is transferred to the output in portions.

Advantages of switching regulators: high efficiency, compact volume.

Disadvantages of switching regulators: the signal impurity—the lower bandwidth—the not exact zero crossings—the slow response to fast load change—the cosphi must be close to 1.


4 Quadrant Amplifier:  ... are amplifiers that can operate as both source and sink in 4-quadrants.


Advantages of linear amplifiers:  lowest ripple—exact zero crossings—wide cosphy range—100% power dissipation and cosphy approaching 0, with appropriate sizing; bandwidth up into the MHz range.




Capacitor:  ... is a storage device that can store and release electrical charge (current). In this process, the current precedes the voltage.

Coil (inductor ):  ... is a winding of conductive material (with or without magnetic core).

Resistor:  This is an electronic component that allows current to flow depending on the applied voltage.






Unterschiedliche Begriffe, aber gleiche Bedeutung:

Source = Generator

sink = load


linear = longitudinally controlled

clocked = pulse? switched


LV124 = LV 124 = LV-124

LV148 = LV 148 = LV-148

USS = VPP   /   Uss = Vpp

Ueff = Vrms   /   Ueff = Vrms

UI = VIN   /   Ui = Vin

UA = VOUT   /   Ua = Vout

Ieff = Crms   /   Ieff = Crms

ISS = CPP   /   Iss = Cpp

II = CIN   /   Ii = Vin

IA = COUT   /   Ia = Vout

siny = sinφ

cosy = cosφ

qcm = cm2






DUT (Device Under Test ):  is an object to be tested according to the test specification.

Direct voltage / direct current (DC):  This is are stable, constant, not changing voltage / current values.

Alternating voltage / alternating current (AC):  This is a changing quantity.

Frequency:  Number of oscillations per time unit.
E.g.:  7Hz (7 Herz) = 7 oscillations per second; 1MHz = 1 million oscillations per second.

Wave length:  ... is the length of an oscillation (between 2 successive zero-crossings.

linear:  straight-line course

clocked:  e.g. in portions according to a predefined clock. A curve such as sin is generated in the form of a staircase and is serrated in steps (see graphic).

source:  A source provides.

Sink:  A sink takes up something.

Voltage source:  ... Provides voltage

Current source:  ... supplies current

Zero crossing:  ... is the point of polarity change of a function

Ripple:  ... is the unwanted fluctuation of an amplitude


Line voltage:  This is the voltage provided by the network operator (e.g. EON).

Input voltage:  ... the voltage applied to the device input.

Operating voltage:  ... is the supply needed to operate a device.

Output voltage:  ... the voltage available at the output of the device

Over voltage:  This is usually a voltage spike (such as a lightning strike) that exceeds the rated voltage.

Overvoltage protection:  Protects against excessive voltage (usually by short-circuiting against the reference potential).


Line supply:  Supply of a device from the public network.

Input current:  ... is the current consumed by the device during operation.

Inrush current:  The current surge that occurs when the equipment is switched on (to magnetize the transformer and charge the capacitors). The remedy for this is inrush current limiting.

Output current:  ... the current available at the output of the device.

Over current:  ... is the current that exceeds the allowed current.



drive input:

input resistance:

source resistance impedance:

Output resistance:  ... characterizes the output when the load changes. There is no uniform value for this.

Impedance:  ... Complex resistance that also contains inductive and capacitive components.

Output impedance:  ... Complex output resistance

Output capacity:

Interlock:  ... makes the state of the device dependent on others (functions/positions etc.)

Capacitive load:

Load resistance:  ... is the electrical resistance with which an electrical source is loaded.

Line recovery:  ... is the feeding of electricity (e.g. from solar panels) into the local grid/main.

Ggalvanical isolation from line:  ... With galvanic isolation, electrical potentials are kept separate from each other and thus the circuits are potential-free among each other (here separated from the mains).

Over-temperature:  The temperature is above the preset or set maximum temperature.

Arbitrary function: arbitrary—no standard graph

Rise time:  it is defined as the response time between 10% and 90% of the final reading (t90 -t10).

Fall time:  ... time from 90% to 10% of swing.


V ... Volt (voltage):  electrical voltage measured from the zero line to the peak.

Vpp:  ... voltage measured from peak to peak

Vrms:  ... effective voltage (= Vpp divided by 2x root of 2; Vrms = Vpp : 2.82)


LV ... Specifications / bill of quantity

LV124 ... This is a worldwide valid set of rules for vehicles with 12 volt electrical system (automotive).

LV148 ... This set of rules deals with electric vehicles. They are operated on the basis of 48 volts.

LV123 ... Delivery specifications for high-voltage vehicle electrical systems

Factory standards: Manufacturer-specific regulations. Specifications in addition to LV124, LV148 and LV123 (automotive example: GS 95024--2--1, MBN LV 124-1, VW80000).


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