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Power Electronics


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Wiki Power-Electronic (simple explanations)




Function Generator (x): A device that not only outputs the voltage as a sine wave, but also provides it in various function curves (rectangle, trapezoid, etc.). An arbitrary function generator can even generate arbitrary curves.

An arbitrary generator is a function generator that can generate arbitrarily shaped output signals. Arbitrary generators are used in research, development and service for circuit design and optimization, as well as for testing purposes and troubleshooting. - Wikipedia

Power Amplifier: These are amplifiers that provide control signals with a defined power (up to ..tens of kW and frequencies from DC to x MHz) and can be adapted to a wide range of conditions.
They are needed, for example, to carry out tests and measurements under the same conditions. The repeat accuracy is extremely high.
With linear power amplifiers, the voltage or current can be modulated - even arbitrarily.

Current Amplifier: This is a power amplifier that delivers constant current (with voltage being adjusted).

Voltage Amplifier?: This is a power amplifier that delivers a constant voltage (with the current being adjusted).

High Dynamic Switches: These are mainly used to simulate fast switching operations, even at high power levels.

Switch mode technology (switching regulator): With this technology, as much energy is transferred to the output in portions as is needed. The advantage is the high efficiency, the disadvantage the signal impurity and the slow response to fast power increase.

Longitudinal regulated amplifiers (x): They store the maximum power (output voltage / charge), which is then available within e.g. 1µsec.

Series-regulated amplifier (x):

4-Quadrant Amplifier (4 Quadrant Amplifier): An amplifier that can supply AC + DC - as well as be source + load.

Linear power amplifiers (x):





Capacitor (x): This is an accumulator that takes in and releases charge.

Coil (x): This is a winding of insulated wire around a metal core (ferrite core).

Resistor (resistor): This is an electronic component that reduces and dampens the voltage?





Different terms, but same meaning:

Source = Generator

Sink = load


linear = length controlled

clocked = switched / pulse switched?


LV124 = LV 124 = LV-124

LV148 = LV 148 = LV-148

USS = VPP   /   Uss = Vpp

Ueff = Vrms   /   Ueff = Vrms

UI = VIN   /   Ui = Vin

UA = VOUT   /   Ua = Vout

Ieff = Crms   /   Ieff = Crms

ISS = CPP   /   Iss = Cpp

II = CIN   /   Ii = Vin

IA = COUT   /   Ia = Vout

siny = sinφ

cosy = cosφ

qcm = cm2






DUT (DUT): A Device Under Test (DUT) is an object to be tested. It is supplied with power in a controlled manner by an amplifier.

Direct current (DC): This is a wave with an infinitely long wavelength.
For practical purposes it is quasi linear (below 0.01 Hz.??)

Alternating current (AC): This is a wave or other pulsating curve. There is theoretically no upper limit to the frequency.

Frequency: Periodically changing voltage level per time unit.
Example: 7Hz (7 Herz) = 7 oscillations per second; 1MHz = 1 million oscillations per second.

Wave length: This is, for example, a complete sine wave. It will normally be measured between 2 peaks / 2 valleys / 2 zero crossings.

linear (linear): Smooth waves, linear rise, etc.

clocked: The wave is not smooth, but jagged in the rhythm of the clock frequency (see diagram).

source: A source is something that has more output vectors than input vectors. If you look at a lamp, it is a source in terms of light.

Sink: A sink is something that has fewer output vectors than input vectors. If you look at a lamp in terms of voltage, it is a sink.

Voltage source: This is, as the word says, a source that supplies voltage [volts]. The current varies according to the formula ... if ...

current source: This is a source that supplies current [amps].


zero crossing (x):  (+drawing)

Ripple (x):  (+drawing)


Line voltage: This is the voltage provided by the network operator (e.g. EON).

Input voltage: ... the voltage applied to the device input.

Operating voltage: ... the voltage used in the device.

Output voltage: ... the voltage available at the output of the device.

Over voltage: This is usually a voltage peak (such as a lightning strike) that exceeds the nominal voltage.

Overvoltage protection: A device that prevents the connection/transmission of an overvoltage.


Line supply: This is the current supplied by the network operator (such as EON).

Input current: ... the current applied to the unit input.

Inrush current: The current surge that occurs when the unit is switched on to magnetize the transformer and charge the capacitor (remedy: inrush current limitation of the amplifier).

Output current: ... the current available at the output of the unit.

Over current: This is current with a higher amperage than is set/allowed.


Drive input: ... the current available at the output of the unit.


Input resistance

Internal resistance (impedance current)

Impedance / apparent resistance (impedance)

Output impedance:

output capacity


Interlock (x):

Capacitive load

load resistors


Grid recovery (Recycle to grid):

Regenerative (x): Property of an amplifier to accept current and voltage at the output. It is current that flows from the DUT back into the amplifier and is either fed back into the grid or destroyed.

Galvanic isolation from the network (x): To avoid interference (harmonics) from other participants in the network, a separate network is set up.


Over-temperature: Temperature which is above a limit value.


arbitrary: Duden: Left to discretion, arbitrary; at discretion, arbitrary

Rise time (x): This usually refers to the voltage - how long it takes to reach the desired value.

Fall time (x): ... how long it takes, for example, until the voltage has fallen to or below a certain value.


Since alternating current has a sinusoidal shape, different voltage values can be measured. From peak to zero line, from plus peak to minus peak, or the effective voltage (VSS divided by the root of 2).

V ... Volt (electrical voltage): The voltage measured from the zero line to the tip.

Vss (Vpp) ... Voltage peak-peak: The voltage measured from peak to peak

Veff... effective voltage (= Vss divided by the root of 2) RMS = Root Mean Square


LV... Specifications

LV124... This is the rulebook for vehicles with 12/24 Volt voltage. It applies worldwide in the automotive industry.

LV148 ... This set of rules deals with electric vehicles. They are operated on the basis of 48 volts.

LV123 ...

Factory standards in the automotive industry: In addition to LV124, LV148 and LV123, the premium manufacturers have additional specifications. These are laid down in their factory standards (example: GS 95024--2--1, MBN LV 124-1, VW80000).


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